A manned spacecraft capsule ha

A manned spacecraft capsule has a shape of a cylinder 2.5 m in diameter and 9 m long. The air inside the capsule is maintained at 20°C and the convection-heat-transfer coefficient on the interior surface is 17 W/(m2 K). Between the outer skin and the inner surface is a 15 cm layer of glass-wool insulation having a thermal conductivity of 0.017 W/(m K). If the emissivity of the skin is 0.05 and there is no aerodynamic heating or irradiation from astronomical bodies, calculate the total heat transfer rate into space at 0 K.
A glass-wool insulated cylinder in space filled with air
Diameter (D) = 2.5 cm
Length (L) = 9 m
Air temperature (Ta) = 20°C = 293 K
Interior convective heat transfer coefficient (hc) = 17 W/(m2 K)
Insulation thickness (t) = 15 cm = 0.15 m
Thermal conductivity of insulation (k) = 0.017 W/(m K)
Emissivity of the skin (ε) = 0.05
No aerodynamic heating or irradiation from astronomical bodies
Steady state
Thermal resistance of the capsule walls is negligible compared to that of theinsulation


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